Diversity In The Living World - Concept and Details (NEET And AIPMT )

April 30, 2019
Diversity In The Living World - Concept and Details (NEET And AIPMT )

The living world comprise an amazing diversity of living organisms . Early man could easily perceive the difference between inanimate matter and living organisms . Early man deified some of the inanimate matter (wind , sea , fire , etc .) and some among the animals and plants . A common feature of all such forms of inanimate and animate objects was the sense of awe or fear that they evoked .

            The Living World

How wonderful is the living world . What is Living ?

When we try to define ''living ' we conventionally look for distinctive characteristics exhibited by living organisms . Growth , reproduction , ability to sense environment and mount a suitable response come to our mind immediately as unique features of living organisms . One can add a few more features like metabolism b, ability to self replicate , self organise interect an emegence to this list . Let us try to understand each of these .

All living organisms grow . Increase in mass and incresei in number of individuals are twin characteristics of growth . A multicellular organism growth by cell division. In plants , this growth by cell division occurs continiously throughout their life span . In animals this growth is seem only upto a certain age . However cell division occurs in certain tissue to replace lost cells . Unicellular organism also grow by cell division . One can easily observe this in vitro Cultures by simols continuing the number of cells under microscope .In majority of higher animals and plants , growth and reproduction are mutually exclusive events . One must remember that increase in body mass is considered as growth . Non living objects also grow if we take increase in body mass as a certain growth . Mountains , Boulder's and sand mounds do grow . However this kind of growth exihiexhi by non living objects is by accumulation of material on the surface .

Another characteristic of life in metabolism . all living organisms are made of chemicals which Chemicals, small and big, belonging to various classes, sizes, functions, etc comma are constantly being made and changed into some other biomolecules . This conversions are chemical reactions or metabolic reactions. There are thousands of metabolic reactions occurring Simultaneously inside all living organisms,  be the unicellular or multicellular. All plants, animals, fungi and microbes exhibit metabolism . The sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in our body is metabolism . No non living objects exhibit metabolism. metabolic reactions  can be demonstrated outside the body in cell free systems.an Isolated metabolic reactions outside the body of an organism , performed in a test tube is neither living or non living . Hence, metabolism is a defining feature of all living organisms without exceptions, isolated metabolic reactions in vitro are not living things but surely living reactions. , heels cellular organisation of the body is the defining feature of life forms.

Perhaps, most obvious and technically complicated feature of all living organisms is this ability to save their surroundings or environment and respond to this environment till stimuli which could be the physical chemical or biological.

Plants respond to external factors like light, water, temperature other organisms, pollutions ,etc . All organisms from the prokaryotic to most complex eukaryotes can sense and respond environmental cause. Photoperiod affects reproduction in seasonal breeders both plants and animals. All organisms handle Chemicals entering their bodies. Conditions therefore, r aware about their surroundings. Human being is the only organism who is aware of himself. That is has self consciousness .
Consciousness therefore becomes the defining property of living organisms.
When it comes to human beings , it is difficult to define the living state. We observe chaines lying in coma in hospitals Virtually supported by machines which replace heart and lungs. The patient is otherwise brain dead . The patient has more self consciousness. WhatsApp patient who never come back to the normal life, living or nonliving ?

In Higher classes , you will come to know that all living phenomena at due to underlying interactions. Properties of tissues are not present in the constituent cells but arise as a result of interactions among the constituent cells . Similarly, properties of cellular organelles are not present in the molecular constituents of the organelle but arise as a result of interactions among the molecular components comprising the organelle. These interactions result in the emergent properties at a higher level of organisation. This phenomenon is true in the organisational complexity at all levels. Therefore we can say that living organism organisms are self replicating involving and self regulating interactive systems capable of responding to external stimuli. Biology is the story of life on earth. All living organisms present , past and future, to one another by the sharing of the common genetic material but to the varying degrees.

Diversity in the living world

If you look around you will see a large variety of living organisms but it potted plants, insects, Birds, pets or other  animals and plants. There are also several organisms that you cannot see with your naked eye they are all  around you. If you were to increase the area that you make observations in the range and variety of organisms that you see would increase. If you had to visit a dense forest you would probably see much greater number and kinds of living organisms in it . Different kind of plant animal organism that you see represent a species the number of species that are known and described range between 1.7 to 1.8 million . This refers to biodiversity of the number and types of organisms present on earth. We should remember hear that as we explore new areas and even old ones new organisms are continuously being identified  .

As stated earlier plants and animals in the world. Vinod the plants and animals in our own area but the local names. Which local names would vary from place to place even within a country. Probly you recognise the confusion that would be created if we do it did not find ways and means to talk to each other to referred to organisms you are talking about.
There is a need to standardise the naming of living organisms master a particular organisms is known by the same name all over the world. This is called nomenclature. Obviously nomenclature on naming is only possible when the organism is described correctly and we known to what organisms that name is attached to. this is identification.

In Order to facilitate the study, ok scientists have established procedures of assign a scientific name to each  is known organism . This is acceptable to biologists all over the world. Foot plans teams are based on a great principles and criteria which are provided in international code for  Botanical nomenclature (icbn) . You may ask other animals named? Animal a textonomists have  involved international code of zoological nomenclature ICZN .  Scientific name ensure that each organism has only one name. Description of any organism suit in able to the people( in any part of the world) to arrive at the same name. They also ensure that Sach name has not been used for any other known organism.

Biologists , follow universally accepted principles to provide scientific name to known  organisms. Is name has two components- generic name and specific epithet . The system of providing a name with two components is called Binomial Nomenclature . This naming system given by Carolus Linnaeus is being practiced by biologists all over the world. The naming system using two Word format was found convenient . Example of mango to understand the way of providing scientific name better. The scientific name of mango is written as magnifiera  Indica. Virus see how it is a binomial name. In this name magnifier present the genus while Indica is a particular species are specific epithet, aadhar Universal rule of nomenclature are as follows.

       1 . Biological name are generally in Latin and written in italics. Let in east or derived from the Latin irrespective of their origin.

      2. The first word in a biological name represent the chain as well as second component denotes the specific epithet.

     3. Both the words in a biological name of handwritten are separately underlined are printed in italics indicates the Latin origin.

     4 . The first word denoting the Genus starts with a capital letter as well as specific if it starts with small letter.

It is nearly impossible to study all the living organisms it is necessary to divide some means to make this possible. Which process is classification classification is the process by which anything is group into convenient categories .Based on some easily observed characters for example we easily recognise group services plants or animals or dogs cats or  insects. The moment use any of these terms we associate certain characters with the organism in that group. Food image do you see who do you think of a dog? Obviously each one of us will see dogs and not cats .
Hence based on characteristics all living organisms can be classified into different texa . This process of classification is taxonomy. External and internal structure along with the structure of cell development process and ecological information of organisms are essential and from the basis of modern taxonomic studies .
Taxonomy is not something new human being have always been interested in knowing more and more about the various kinds of organisms particularly with reference to their own use. In early days human being need to find suits for deer basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter . In the earlier classification oil based on the use of various organisms .
Human beings oil fields long not only interested in knowing more about different different kinds of organisms and their diversities. Study was referred to as Systematic. The word systematic is derived from the Latin word system which means systematic arrangement of organisms. Learners and system our nature as the title of the publication. The scope of systematic was later in large to include identification, nomenclature and classification. Systematics  takes into account evolutionary relationships between organisms.

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